1. Agile Fundamentals

1. Agile Fundamentals

The Agile Manifesto

Agile is a set of values and principles that guide the development of software and other products. The Agile Manifesto, which was first published in 2001, outlines 12 key values that underpin the agile approach:

  1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools. Agile emphasizes the importance of people and their interactions, rather than relying on strict processes and tools.

  2. Working software over comprehensive documentation. Agile prioritizes the delivery of working software, rather than spending a lot of time on detailed documentation.

  3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation. Agile emphasizes the importance of collaboration with customers, rather than negotiating rigid contracts.

  4. Responding to change over following a plan. Agile approaches are designed to be adaptable and responsive to change, rather than following a rigid plan.

  5. Measuring progress through working software. Agile teams measure progress by delivering working software, rather than relying on other metrics such as lines of code.

  6. Sustainable development over brute force. Agile encourages teams to work at a sustainable pace, rather than trying to push themselves to the limit.

  7. Technical excellence over good design. Agile values technical excellence and good design, but sees them as means to an end rather than an end in themselves.

  8. Simplicity over complexity. Agile promotes simplicity and avoids unnecessary complexity whenever possible.

  9. Self-organizing teams over centralized control. Agile teams are self-organizing, rather than being controlled by a central authority.

  10. Reflecting on progress at regular intervals. Agile teams regularly review and reflect on their progress, rather than waiting until the end of a project.

  11. Adjusting course based on progress. Agile teams adjust their course based on what they have learned, rather than blindly following a predetermined plan.

  12. Seeking to maximize the value of work not performed. Agile teams aim to maximize the value of the work they do, rather than simply trying to do as much work as possible.

The agile approach is designed to be flexible and adaptable, with an emphasis on delivering value to customers and continuously improving the process. It is often used in software development, but can also be applied to other types of projects.

Waterfall Method

The Waterfall method is a traditional approach to software development that follows a linear, sequential process. It was one of the first formal methodologies for software development and is still widely used today.

The Waterfall method is based on the idea of the software development life cycle (SDLC), which is a series of phases that a project goes through from inception to delivery. The typical phases of the SDLC are:

  1. Planning: This phase involves defining the project scope, goals, and deliverables.

  2. Analysis: In this phase, the requirements for the project are gathered and analyzed.

  3. Design: During the design phase, the system architecture and user interface are developed.

  4. Implementation: In this phase, the actual code is written and tested.

  5. Testing: The testing phase involves verifying that the software meets the requirements and is of high quality.

  6. Deployment: The deployment phase involves installing the software in a live environment.

  7. Maintenance: After deployment, the software enters the maintenance phase, where it is monitored and updated as needed.

One of the key benefits of the Waterfall method is that it is relatively simple and easy to understand. It also allows for clear milestones and deliverables to be defined at the beginning of a project.

However, the Waterfall method also has some limitations. Because it is a linear approach, it can be difficult to adapt to changes in requirements or technology. It also tends to be more rigid and inflexible than other approaches, which can be a problem in fast-changing environments.

In contrast, agile is a more flexible and iterative approach to software development. Agile approaches are based on the Agile Manifesto, which emphasizes individuals and interactions, working software, customer collaboration, and responding to change.

Agile approaches are designed to be adaptable and responsive to change, with an emphasis on delivering value to customers and continuously improving the process. They often involve working in short iterations called sprints and using frequent check-ins to review progress and adjust the approach.

The Waterfall method and agile are two different approaches to software development, each with its strengths and weaknesses. While the Waterfall method is a more traditional and linear approach, agile is a more flexible and iterative approach that is well-suited to fast-changing environments.


Scrum is a widely-used agile framework for managing and completing complex projects. It was first developed in the 1990s and has since become one of the most popular approaches to agile software development.

Scrum is based on the principles of transparency, inspection, and adaptation, and is designed to help teams deliver value to customers faster through frequent iterations called sprints.

In a Scrum team, there are three key roles: the Product Owner, the Scrum Master, and the Development Team.

The Product Owner is responsible for defining the vision and goals of the project, and for prioritizing the work that needs to be done. They are the voice of the customer and are responsible for ensuring that the team is working on the most valuable features first.

The Scrum Master is responsible for ensuring that the team follows the Scrum framework and values. They act as a facilitator and coach, helping the team to remove any barriers to progress.

The Development Team is responsible for actually building the product. They are self-organizing and cross-functional, meaning that they have all the skills needed to complete the work.

Scrum teams are designed to be highly collaborative and flexible, with a focus on continuous improvement. By working in short sprints and using frequent check-ins called "scrums," teams can deliver value to customers faster and more efficiently.

Scrum is a powerful agile framework that can help teams deliver value to customers faster and more efficiently. By following the principles of transparency, inspection, and adaptation, and by leveraging the skills of the Product Owner, Scrum Master, and Development Team, teams can continuously improve their process and deliver value more effectively.

Scrum Meetings

In Scrum, there are several different types of meetings that are designed to help teams stay on track and continuously improve their process. These meetings include:

  1. Sprint Planning: This is a meeting that takes place at the beginning of each sprint, where the team discusses the work that needs to be done and how it will be accomplished.

  2. Daily Scrum: Also known as the "daily stand-up," the Daily Scrum is a short meeting that takes place every day, where team members discuss their progress and any obstacles they are facing.

  3. Sprint Review: This is a meeting that takes place at the end of each sprint, where the team demonstrates the work that has been completed and discusses any feedback or suggestions for improvement.

  4. Sprint Retrospective: This is a meeting that takes place at the end of each sprint, where the team reflects on what went well and what could be improved in the next sprint.

These meetings are designed to be quick and focused, to identify any issues or roadblocks and find ways to address them. By regularly reviewing and adjusting their process, Scrum teams can continuously improve and deliver value to customers more effectively.

Product Backlog

In Scrum, the product backlog is a prioritized list of work that needs to be done to deliver value to customers. It includes both high-level goals and detailed tasks and is managed by the Product Owner.

The product backlog is dynamic and constantly evolving, as the team learns more about the needs of the customers and the project. It is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product and is the basis for the work that the Development Team does during each sprint.

One way to organize the items in the product backlog is through the use of user stories. A user story is a short, simple description of a feature or requirement from the perspective of an end user. It typically follows a standard format, such as "As a [type of user], I want [some goal] so that [some reason]." User stories are written in a way that is easy for the Development Team to understand and implement, and are typically small enough to be completed in a single sprint.

Epics are another type of item that can be included in the product backlog. An epic is a large, high-level goal that can be broken down into smaller user stories. Epics are typically too big to be completed in a single sprint and need to be divided into smaller chunks of work.

By organizing the product backlog with user stories and epics, Scrum teams can prioritize and plan their work more effectively, and deliver value to customers faster.

Iterative Risk Management

In agile and scrum, risk management is an ongoing process that helps teams identify, assess, and mitigate risks throughout the project. Unlike traditional risk management approaches, which tend to be more reactive and focused on identifying risks before the project starts, iterative risk management involves continuously monitoring and managing risks as the project progresses. This allows teams to adapt to changing circumstances and respond to new risks as they arise.

Control Measures

One key technique for managing risk is the use of control measures. Control measures are actions that are taken to prevent or mitigate the impact of a risk. These measures can be proactive (preventing the risk from occurring) or reactive (mitigating the impact of a risk that has already occurred). Examples of control measures include testing, reviews, and inspections. By implementing control measures, teams can reduce the likelihood of negative outcomes and ensure that the project stays on track.


Estimation is another important aspect of risk management in agile and Scrum. Estimation involves determining how much time and effort will be required to complete a task or deliverable. Accurate estimation is crucial for managing risk, as it allows teams to identify potential bottlenecks and allocate resources appropriately. There are a variety of techniques that teams can use to estimate the size and complexity of work, such as relative sizing and planning poker.

MoSCow Method

The MoSCoW method is another tool that can be used to prioritize work in agile and Scrum. The acronym stands for "Must have," "Should have," "Could have," and "Won't have this time." This method allows teams to prioritize work based on the value it delivers and the effort required. Must-have items are considered essential for the project to be successful, while should-have items are important but not critical. Could-have items are desirable but not necessary, and won't-have-this-time items are not included in the current scope of the project.

Overall, iterative risk management is an important aspect of agile and Scrum and involves using a variety of techniques to identify, assess, and manage risk. By using control measures, estimation, and the MoSCoW method, teams can effectively manage risk and deliver value to customers. It is important to note that risk management in agile and Scrum is not a one-time event, but an ongoing process that requires continuous monitoring and adjustment. By regularly reviewing and updating the product backlog and adapting to changing circumstances, teams can ensure that they are prepared to handle any risks that may arise.


Agile and Scrum provide a powerful framework for managing complex projects and delivering value to customers. By embracing the values and principles of agile, and by using tools like Scrum, teams can continuously improve their process and achieve success.

The second blog in the DevOps Training 2023 series will be DevOps Fundamentals. Stay tuned for more insights and tips on how to succeed in your DevOps journey.

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